MIT Biologists Discover Fasting Can Boost Stem Cells' Regenerative Capacity

Wednesday, May 9, 2018 - 13:27

Biologists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have discover that the age-related loss of stem cell function can be reversed by a 24-hour fast.

MIT biologists found that fasting dramatically improves stem cells' ability to regenerate, in both aged and young mice, Science Daily reports.

In fasting mice, cells begin breaking down fatty acids instead of glucose, a change that stimulates the stem cells to become more regenerative.

The researchers found that they could also boost regeneration with a molecule that activates the same metabolic switch.

Such an intervention could potentially help older people recovering from GI infections or cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, the researchers say.

"Fasting has many effects in the intestine, which include boosting regeneration as well as potential uses in any type of ailment that impinges on the intestine, such as infections or cancers," says Omer Yilmaz, an MIT assistant professor of biology, a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, and one of the senior authors of the study.

"Understanding how fasting improves overall health, including the role of adult stem cells in intestinal regeneration, in repair, and in aging, is a fundamental interest of my laboratory."

David Sabatini, an MIT professor of biology and member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, is also a senior author of the paper, which appears in the May 3 issue of Cell Stem Cell.

"This study provided evidence that fasting induces a metabolic switch in the intestinal stem cells, from utilizing carbohydrates to burning fat," Sabatini says.

"Interestingly, switching these cells to fatty acid oxidation enhanced their function significantly. Pharmacological targeting of this pathway may provide a therapeutic opportunity to improve tissue homeostasis in age-associated pathologies."

The paper's lead authors are Whitehead Institute postdoc Maria Mihaylova and Koch Institute postdoc Chia-Wei Cheng.

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