Iranian Researchers Discover AI Can Help Cancer Treatment

Saturday, January 18, 2020 - 11:00

A group of researchers from Sharif University of Technology, Royan Institute and Colorado State University has discovered that Artificial Intelligence can play a significant role in cancer researches.

According to an ISCA report, molecular cancer pathology is often limited to the use of a small number of biomarkers rather than the whole transcriptome, partly due to computational challenges.

In this regard, Behrooz Azarkhalili, Ali Sharifi-Zarchi and Ali Saberi from Sharif University of Technology in cooperation with Hamidreza Chitsaz from Colorado State University have succeeded in introducing a novel architecture of DNNs that is capable of simultaneous inference of various properties of biological samples, through multi-task and transfer learning.

Based on the research which its results released in Scientific Reports, researchers employed this architecture on mRNA transcription profiles of 10787 clinical samples from 34 classes (one healthy and 33 different types of cancer) from 27 tissues.

The system significantly outperforms prior works and classical machine learning approaches in predicting tissue-of-origin, normal or disease state and cancer type of each sample. Furthermore, it can predict miRNA transcription profile of each sample, which enables performing miRNA expression research when only mRNA transcriptome data are available.

Researchers also show this system is very robust against noise and missing values. Collectively, their results highlight applications of artificial intelligence in molecular cancer pathology and oncological research.

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